: Olive oils of this first category must – among other requirements – be flawless in taste and smell. EU regulations define the requirements.
Virgin: A second grade oil. In Germany, most often only „extra-virgin“ labeled oils can be bought.
Lampante: A virgin oil with significant sensory defects such as rancid or stale taste or smell. Such oil is not approved for direct human consumption and must be refined to make it edible.
Cold pressed: When pressing, the temperature must not exceed 27 degrees Celsius. Additional heat is not allowed even when pressing the usual virgin olive oils.
Heat treatment: The unpleasant taste and smell of inferior oils (virgin, lampante etc.) can be improved by heating, however this is not permitted. Such treatment can be later detected in a laboratory.
The label „extra-virgin“ in Germany is not a definitive statement concerning the quality of the oil. From a chemical perspective, olive oil sold for € 3 hardly differs from an oil sold for € 15, even though their taste and smell are worlds apart.